Men and women are pillars of society, without their equal participation in all spheres of life no society can progress properly. As far as the capabilities of women are concerned, they are no less than men. From the stone age women have been equally participating in socio-economic life with men but women labor forces participation has not given the same consideration as men work receive. The status of women as second-class citizen is reinforced by the narrow vocational opportunities available to them. Their contribution remains invisible as most of them have to work in the unorganized and informal sector which encompasses all kind of work, such as casual frame work, labor in family enterprises and private crafts, private schools or installed labor in houses. Moreover a large invisible female labor force cannot be properly utilized in the best interests of the country (Maqsood , 2005)
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clinical data suggest that in this highly oppressive, religious and male-dominant society, people seem to rely more on violence/force to solve or escape problems, particularly, matrimonial in nature. Often, men get away with it, because, the Pakistani women like some other third world women (such as, Indians, Bengalis, Malaysians etc.) continue to be the most under-privileged, under-educated and the most traumatized group. Furthermore, fear, ignorance, religious and socio-cultural beliefs prevent these women from exposing themselves as victims of home violence. Consequently, the under-reporting of domestic violence fails to give us a true picture of the grave situation at home. Moreover, it is astounding how little we know about the incidence of home violence across cultures and the victims’ specific psychosocial reactions to it. (Farooqi, 1992)
The physical care of small children does not necessarily involve either confinement to a nuclear family home or exclusive pursuit of the domestic chores of food preparation and the making and care of clothes; yet the female work role nearly always involves these services for the children and, with the exception of men who live outside a family-type house-hold, for the male members of the family as well. In agricultural societies women also pursue “productive activities”- ranging from the gathering of food or its cultivation through horticulture, agriculture, and animal husbandry to food processing- not only for their own household but also for exchange or sale. One thing is clear: As varied and extensive as the work activities outside the domestic sphere may have been in different societies and in various periods in time, it has been taken for granted that a married woman would first fill the domestic and child-care role, either by doing the work herself or by supervising other women doing it. (Judith,1975)
Culture, however, as a constituting part of human nature has not been that prominent in particularly economic analyses that examine female employment across countries. This might to some extent be attributed to the complexity of the term. It consists of explicit and implicit patterns of and for behavior. Traditional ideas, i.e. ideas that are historically derived and selected and especially their attached values are of particular importance. Culture may therefore, on the one hand, be considered as products of action but it may, on the other hand, also be considered as conditioning elements of further action.( Heineck,2004)
To assess the male attitude towards the working women
To identify the socio culture causes regarding male attitude towards the working women.
To identify the perception of male attitude towards working women
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Misra & Bhagaban (1996) Examined the attitudes regarding female labour force participation among people of different ages using National Opinion Research Centre Social Survey data. They Focused specifically on the factors associated with a pro-feminist attitude. Demonstrates that younger people had more positive attitudes towards women working outside their homes than do older people. Men were less pro-feminist in their attitudes than were women. Men and women disapprove of a woman working if preschool children suffer by her working. In addition to age and gender, the factors influencing attitude were income, education, religious beliefs, urban residence, born in this country, having young children in the family or expecting more children, and work years and job security. A supportive attitude for working women was associated with higher education, higher family income, residence in urban areas, liberal viewpoints, and uncertainty about having more children. The absence of correlation between employment of women and attitudes towards participation in the workforce and between marital status and attitude were especially surprising.
Siddique et al (2000) concluded that women of low socio-economic levels were expected to work beyond their limits: to produce children, to look after their homes, to earn money and to do every thing that pleases their men because it is considered that in all this lies their betterment. A working woman has to work hard both in office and at home. People seldom realize the troubles suffered by working women. In order to bring forth the problems faced by working women and the factors, which force the women to take up jobs at low wages. The married women revealed that poverty increases frequency of women labor. Illiteracy, lack of skills, low income and unemployment of husbands are the factors, which enforce them to take up the jobs at low wages.
Zareen et al (2002) Found that age has a positive and significant effect on women’s decision in both cases either when she decides herself or with the consultation. Education is an important factor in determining the amount of decision-making powers with the women concerned. as educational level increases, the women have greater chance to decide on their own. It has been observed that being below Matric level does not have any effect on the decision power of women. However, education above Matric level renders more power to the women in her decision. Around 3 percent women, who were above Matric made decision by themselves and 1 percent consulted by another household member while making decision regarding her employment. The above effects are also statistically significant. This result reinforces the claims that with university education the likelihood of a woman being in the labour force increases around three times more than the likelihood of a man’s .
Chuang (2003) Empirically investigated women’s work interruption behavior in Taiwan and this behavior’s influence on women’s earnings. The most striking finding from our analysis of women’s work history patterns is that a husband’s negative attitude toward a working wife will more greatly discourage his wife from attaching to the labor market than will the presence of young children in the family. Thus, it is critical to educate men to give up their traditional attitudes toward gender roles in order to raise the female labor force participation rate in Taiwan. As to the effect of work interruption on earnings, a depreciation rate of 2.8% is found for women with at least a high-school level of education, while no penalty of foregone experience is shown for less-educated women. Since this depreciation effect may discourage women from re-entering the labor market, government programs encouraging self-employment should be helpful, as self-employed women find it easier to overcome the conflict between family obligations and work needs.
Ali et al ( 2005) studied that an employed woman is not only disapproved but also strongly discouraged in Pakistani society. The socially prevalent attitude is that a father or a husband feels undignified to live on earning of her daughters and wife respectively. Such attitude had been responsible for discouraging many qualified women for joining various vocations. The main objectives of this study were to study the attitudes of males towards female’s education and employment,study the socio-economic factors and their effects on female’s education and employment, and study the perception of males towards the problems of employed females
Rana (2007) Intended to explore women’s perception of glass ceiling in the private organizations of Pokhara. Hundred women with different age groups working in different private organizations of Pokhara were taken as the sample. Their perception on the disparate treatment of women in organizations, behavior of their male colleagues towards them, the role of their family members in their professional growth, perception of role conflict and their aspiration towards their career advancements were asked and have been analyzed to find out if women perceive the existence of glass ceiling. In this regard, viewpoints of their male counterparts have also been taken into consideration.
Rubab et al( 2008 ) Concluded that practice of women would principally do the household tasks, bringing up families and men would work to impart financial supports to the families. But in course of time due to declining population, education, economic welfare and women liberation movement, that convention has changed gradually. Women now seek out careers for livelihood and earning money as well as for identification, development and self-actualization and self esteem. They do not focus on just supplementing the earnings of their family but also feel like to make a fuller use of their talents and skills to secure for themselves and their family members the best of nourishment, education and cultural life. However, although the recent practice of women working bring financial independence, it also exalts difficulties and stresses to the working women’s lives in terms of various elements of the job situation such as lack of job security, social protection, interpersonal relations at work, responsibility conflict and uncertainty, lack of autonomy and participation at work, organizational arrangement and atmosphere, career prospects, work and family balances issues, disproportionate work load, health and safety risks, low wage etc. The present study contains the information and situation on working women, the hazards and occupational strains they face at work and in family life in many developed and developing countries including Bangladesh. Besides, this study has also tried to illustrate where the difficulties are and how far these for working women can be solved by giving them emotional sustenance, voicing against the long standing harassment of women and advocating equality for them.
Malwade Basu et al (2007) concluded that women’s employment, in spite of its other benefits, probably has one crucial adverse consequence: a higher level of child mortality than is found among women who do not work. We examine various intermediate mechanisms for this relationship and conclude that a shortage of time is one of the major reasons for this negative relation between maternal employment and child survival. However, even in the area of child survival, there is one aspect which is positively affected by female employment: the disadvantage to girls in survival which is characteristic of South Asia seems to be smaller among working mothers. This is in contrast to the effect of maternal education which may often have no clear relation to the sex ratio of childhood mortality even though absolute levels of child mortality are lower for educated mothers.
Colton ( 2008 ) Studied that Women’s roles in the work force have increased, however, women’s positions in the household have not changed greatly While paid work research has focused significantly on the qualities of roles, household work research has not As the few existing instruments that do measure the quality of household work roles lack psychometric evidence a new instrument assessing all aspects of the quality of household work roles and possessing evidence of validity and reliability is required.
Ghosh (2008) Studied that a multifaceted understanding of Islamic feminism can contribute to productive dialogue about the future of Muslim women in both Islamic and secular states. Towards that end I will discuss the numerous interpretations of Islamic, secular, collaborative and hybrid feminisms that have surfaced in Islamic and non-Islamic nations. There is a pragmatic value to developing a standard for Islamic feminism that can be “modern” and held up to more oppressive local conditions/politics and their extremes of patriarchy. To do this, one needs a comprehensive review of what local oppressions exist in specific countries and what feminist angles can be brought together in a hybridized version. One needs to look at what coalitional functions can occur in different communities which can bring together Islamic, secular, and other discourses in a hybridized form that attend better to women’s lived lives and sense of personhood.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The area of the study will be conducted from rural and urban areas of Tehsil D.G.Khan. According to administration there are 41 unions councils in the Tehsil D.G.Khan. 07 union councils are belong to urban area and 34 union councils brlong to rural area and therefore my study will concerned with 08 union councils selected rendomly from total 41 union councils of thensil D.G.Khan.The respondents will be selected randomly from above said union councils. Thus a sample of 200 respondents will be interviewed by using well structured questionnaire. The results will be analyze by using SPSS and will be presented in the form of M.Sc Rural Sociology Thesis.
Ali. H, M. Iqbal and S.Hussnain 2005 Males Attitude Towards Females Education and Employment J. Agri. Soc. Sci., 1( 3)
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Rubab.A,S.Jahan,S.Saha. 2008 Occupational stress, social and family difficulties and job contentment of working women Bangladesh perspective Daffodil International Uni. J of Business & Eco. 3(1):139-153
Siddique.A, N. Hussain and R.Sultana 2000 IDENTIFICATION OF REASONS FOR OVER-WORKED AND UNDERPAID WOMEN LABOR IN LAHORE J Agri , 39(3)
ZAREEN F. NAQVI & L.SHAHNAZ ,2002 How Do Women Decide to Work in Pakistan :The Pakistan Development Review 41:4 Part II . 495-513
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