A literature review is a compilation of resources that provide the ground work for the further study. It is frequently found as a subsection of a published research study. Literature review refers to the activities involves in searching for information on a topic and developing a comprehensive picture of the state of the knowledge on the topic.
Review of literature is a written summary of the study conducted previously related to the present study topic (Polit and Hungler, 1999).
The researcher carried out an extensive review of literature on the research topic in order to collect maximum relevant information for building the foundations of the study.
In the present study the review of literature is arranged in the following headings.
Studies related to,
Incidence of fever.
Parental perception of fever.
Home management of fever.
Imogene King’s Goal Attainment theory.
Conceptual frame work based on Imogene King’s Goal Attainment Theory.
1. STUDIES RELATED TO INCIDENCE OF FEVER
Meremikwu, M., (2003) conducted a study on physical methods for treating fever in children. The aim of the study was to check the usages of different methods for cooling the body externally, in the management of fever and so the study resulted that the use of tepid sponging helps to reduce fever.
Robin Watts, et.al., (2003) conducted a study on nursing management of fever in children. The objective of the study is to check the needed support of more nursing interventions that are used to decrease the increased temperature. The study was done in non-critical-ill children with fever aged between 3 months and 16 years.
2. STUDIES RELATED TO PARENTAL PERCEPTION OF FEVER
Al-Eissa YA, et.al., (2000) conducted a study on Parental perceptions of fever in children. The objective of the study was to survey parents about their knowledge and attitude concerning fever in their children. Parents of 560 febrile children were interviewed using a standard questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic information and current knowledge of fever. The result revealed that most parents had poor knowledge regarding minimum temperature for administering correct doses of antipyretic drugs. Only one third of parents indicated reasonable education imprint by health care providers. A study concluded that parental misconceptions about fever reflect the lack of active health education in our community. Health professionals had not done enough to educate parents on the condition of fever and its consequences.
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McErlean, MA., et.al., (2001) conducted a study on the use of Home antipyretic in children brought to the emergency ward. The objective of the study was to check how often the children with a complaint of fever received antipyretics at home. A prospective, descriptive study of children 3 to 36 months old, presenting with complains of fever was conducted. The result revealed that out of (86%) children who received antipyretics at home, only 47% had been given a proper dose. This study reported that antipyretic dose at home did not predict presence of fever or level of temperature measured in the emergency department.
Jeanette., (2007) did a study on parents belief, knowledge and the ways of management regarding fever. Samples selected were 15 parents who all are having their children aged between six months to five years. The result showed that the temperature ranging from 38.0o C – 39.0o C was considered harmful, by the parents. The study then suggested that the belief and knowledge of parents are highly influenced by their information’s and experiences regarding fever.
Walsh, A., et.al., (2008) conducted a study on childhood fever management, a study to make a scale to measure the practices of parent’s management of fever and also to check parent’s practices, belief and knowledge on fever management. The result noted that moderate fever (40.0+/- 1.0 degrees C) was reported to be harmful (88%) and causing febrile convulsions (77.7%). Usual practices targeted at temperature reduction, antipyretic administration (87.8%). Fever practices as giving more fluids a (49.0%) and light clothing (43.8%), were reported. The study shows that parent’s need more practical skills on management of fever in home. The scale should tested with different atmospheres, for taking it for nursing practices.
Matziou, V., et.al., (2008) conducted a study on Evaluation and treatment of fever in children. To explore mother’s knowledge concerning management of fever in their children, at home, descriptive, correlation study was conducted on a total of 327 mothers with febrile children randomly selected in the waiting room. Data collection was based on interviews by using a questionnaire which was specifically developed for this study. Result revealed that one out of every three mothers (32.4%) evaluated fever as a temperature between 37 – 38oC, 38.1% of them considered that side effects could be a result of these temperatures. The majority of the mothers (73.7%) administered antipyretics at body temperatures of 37-38.5oC, usually without a medical instruction (49.2%). The study insisted on educational interventions by health care professionals aiming at educating young mothers with a low educational level.
Sakai, R, et.al., (2009) conducted a study on fever practices and feelings and knowledge of parents about fever. Questionnaire was prepared to make a survey on mothers those are going to routine health centers. 386 mothers were checked. The study suggested that mothers those underwent fever with seizures in their children have high knowledge on fever.
Clin Pediatr., (2009) conducted a study on Ethnic Differences in Parental Perception and Management of Childhood fever. The objective of the study is that the knowledge and management of childhood fever among ethnical diverse parents and identify opportunities for educational interventions. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenient sample of 487 parents of children enrolled in 2 urban hospital-based paediatric clinics. The results revealed that parents were least likely to identify a temperature as non-febrile from 97-100oF or identify a fever as a temperature from 100.4-107oF. The study reported that continued education to all families about fever is necessary and there are opportunities to develop ethnically sensitive strategies to target educational interventions.
Walsh, A,, (2009) conducted a study to see the interest of parents in the usage of medicines to reduce fever of their children. The aim of the study is to check the parents interest on this. So a survey was done to 391 Australian parents those have their fever children. The results suggested that there is an urgent need for the education of both parents about the benefits of fever.
3. STUDY RELATED TO HOME MANAGEMENT OF FEVER:
O’Neill-Murphy, K., et.al., (2001) conducted a study which assessed the parents anxiety about fever, in a pediatrics hospital. The result obtained as that the anxiety were decreased on a post-fever education and increased parent’s skill in fever management at home. The study showed that parents in hospital got a very useful education regarding fever, its practices, which can easily practice at home settings and this reduced their level of anxiety.
Robinson, JS., et.al., (2001) conducted a study regarding the effectiveness of education about fever and its management. The objective of the study is to check the knowledge of parents regarding fever, its management and to improve their knowledge regarding fever and its management and also to encourage regular visiting in the health care centers. The study suggested that education with the use of more AV aids will improve patient’s knowledge and confidence in fever management and increases the frequency of visiting in health centers.
Huang, MC., (2006) conducted a study on effects of fever education on changing parental concepts and management of fever in childhood. The study was conducted in parent-oriented education program. The result suggested that healthcare professionals provided more information to parents for improving parent’s actions and decision making on fever management.
Sarrell, M., (2006) conducted a study on a single-session education program on parental knowledge of and approach to childhood fever. The parents completed the questionnaires on their knowledge and approach to the management of childhood fever and the responses to the two questionnaires were compared. The report revealed that high-grade fever was correctly defined by 75% of the parents after the reinforced education session compared to 46% before and over 95% of the parents correctly treated fever after the reinforced session compared to only 50% before. This study suggested that parental knowledge of fever management in children can be significantly improved by a reinforced educational session.
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4. STUDIES RELATED TO THEORY- IMOGEN KING’S GOAL ATTAINMENT THEORY
Hepsi Rachel., (2007) conducted a study to check the effectiveness of a self explanatory booklet on knowledge and compliance regarding the management of hypertension among the hypertensive patients attending the outpatients department of Sri Gokulam Hospital, Salem. In this study the investigator used King’s goal attainment theory as a conceptual frame work. The investigator used one group pre test, post test only pre experimental design. The result shows that the mean pre test scores for knowledge and compliance were 73.85% and 62.70% respectively. After administering the booklet there was significant improvement in knowledge and compliance scores is 96.85%, 91.29% respectively. The overall paired ‘t’ value on knowledge was 12.162% and overall paired ‘t’ value for compliance was 13.311% both were significant at 0.05 level of significant.
5. CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK BASED ON IMOGENE KING’S GOAL ATTAINMENT THEORY
The study is based on Imogene King’s Goal Attainment Theory (1997) which should be relevant for the present study, to evaluate the effectiveness of pamphlet cum demonstration (PCD) on home based fever management in terms of knowledge and practice among mothers of under five children in selected community at Salem.
The main concepts of Imogene king’s open system are;
It is the primary feature of personnel system because it influences all other behaviors, refers to a person’s representation of reality, it is universal, yet highly subjective and unique to each persons.
In this study it is perceived that the mother of under five children has less knowledge and practice regarding the home based fever management.
Two interacting persons from a dyad. Each member of the dyad perceives the other and makes judgement for goal attainment.
Here it is judged that the mother’s of under five children is needed to be taught about the home based fever management in order to improve the knowledge and practice, thereby mild fever can be managed in home base itself.
Each member of the dyad makes judgement and thereby action follows to attach the goal.
In this study the action is planned to prepare a pamphlet on home based fever management and demonstrate the measures to reduce fever.
Mutual goal setting:
Mutual goal setting is a process that leads to goal attainment.
In this study researcher is planned to teach about the home based fever management to the mothers of under five children and the mother is willing to learn about the home based fever management, i.e.; they are accepting to participate in teaching learning programme and redemonstrate the practices of home based fever management.
It refers to verbal and non-verbal behavior between an individual and the environment or between two or more individuals; it involves goal-directed perception and communication.
In this study the researcher is interacting with mother’s by administering pamphlet about the meaning and cause of fever, nutrition, complication and management of fever, also the researcher will demonstrate on checking axillary temperature, giving tepid sponging and the administration of drug for fever and make the mother to re-demonstrate the practice and clear their doubts.
It refers to the interaction between a person and the environment for the purpose of goal attainment.
In this study the researcher done a post-test to check the improvement of knowledge and practices of home based fever management among mother’s of under five children.
ACTION: Plan to prepare pamphlet on home based fever management and demonstrate the measures for reducing fever.
FIG-2.1: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK BASED ON IMOGENES KING’S GOAL ATTAINMENT THEORY (1997) APPLIED ON EFFECTIVENESS OF PAMPHLET CUM DEMONSTRATION ON HOME BASED FEVER MANAGEMENT AMONG MOTHERS OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN
Adequate knowledge score of home based fever management
Adequate practice score of home based fever management
GOAL NOT ATTAINED
Inadequate knowledge score of home based fever management
Inadequate practice score of home based fever management
Assessment of knowledge on home based fever management.
Assessment of practice of home based fever management.
Administering pamphlet about the meaning and cause of fever, nutrition, complication and management of fever.
Demonstrating on checking axillary temperature, giving tepid sponging and administration of drug for fever.
Assessment of demographic variables of the samples and under five children’s.
Assessment of knowledge on home based fever management with self administered questionnaire.
Assessment of practice of home based fever management with rating scale.
MUTUAL GOAL ATTAINMENT
The researcher planned to teach about home based fever management to the mothers of under five children.
The mother willing to learn about home based fever management.
Accepting to participate in teaching learning programme and redemonstrate the practices of home based fever management.
PERCEPTION: Realize that the need to know about the home based fever management and seeking for the source of information to improve knowledge and practice of home based fever management.
JUDGEMENT: Need to teach the mother of under five children about the home based fever management in order to improve the knowledge and practice, thereby fever can be managed in home base itself.
PERCEPTION: The mother of under five children has less knowledge and practices regarding the home based fever management.
JUDGEMENT: Need to improve knowledge and practice of home based fever management.
ACTION: Shows willingness to practice in home based fever management and trying to follow the learned experience.
* Not included in this study
This chapter included the review of literature regarding studies related to incidence of fever, parental perception of fever, home management of fever, Imogene King’s Goal Attainment Theory and also Conceptual Framework based on Imogene King’s Goal Attainment Theory.
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