Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.
Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers.

Any scientific information contained within this essay should not be treated as fact, this content is to be used for educational purposes only and may contain factual inaccuracies or be out of date.

Coastal Environment Management Strategies Assessment

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Studies
Wordcount: 2490 words Published: 23rd Sep 2019

Reference this

Assess the management strategies used by the NSW State government in coastal management and suggest improvements to these strategies to enhance sustainable environmental management for all stakeholders


Coastal environments are dynamic and continuously changing through biophysical processes. The biophysical processes have created the picturesque coastal environment we see today and maintain well for a suitable environment for a wide range of ecosystems. However, there are 85% of the Australia’s population reside within 50 kilometres of the coastline and these lead up to adverse impact on the coastlines by human interference and exponentially increasing amounts of built environments.

The state government, residents and local councils have attempted to preserve the coastal environments by multiple management strategies. This report examines the effectiveness of the management strategies and explores biophysical processes on coastal environments and stakeholders having interest in protecting the coastal environment.

Biophysical Processes

The biophysical processes essential to the functioning of Australian coastal environments are erosion, transportation and deposition. Coastal erosion involves the removal of rock and sand particles from wind or ocean waves. It eventually breaks materials on the coastline and erodes the shape of the coastline. When the coastline is eroded, the materials on the coastline is carried to another location from constructive waves, rivers and currents, which is also known as transportation. Deposition is depositing sands and rock particles caused by wind and waves, forming coastal landforms.

The biophysical processes

Collaroy Beach has several management issues based on the erosion’s impact on the coastal landforms. Erosion happens when strong winds and low-pressure weather impacts on the waves. The processes of erosion are hydraulic action and corrasion. Hydraulic action is when waves enter into the cracks in rocks, air is compressed by the force of the water causing erosion, while corrasion is the action of salt on minerals that are contained in rock, weakening the strength of the rock and vulnerable to erosion. The process of transportation constructs a beach, consequently sediments are carried by wind towards the land. Vegetation cultivates further away from the beach (around the secondary dune and primary dune) due to a larger amount of nutritious soil and freshwater. The roots of the vegetation stabilize the sands, reducing the risk of erosion. The data below depicts the effect of vegetation on protecting the wind flow (rear of primary dune.)


Wind Direction

Wind Speed Minute 1 (km/h)

Wind Speed Minute 2 (km/h)

Wind Speed Minute 3 (km/h)

Mean (km/h)

Rear of Primary Dune






Front of Primary Dune






Profile Position


Distance (m)

Degrees (°) (+ is upwards, – is downwards)





















Primary Dune




Primary Dune




Primary Dune




Dune Profile at Long Reef

Based on the data above, the primary dune measurement 1 has steeper sand dunes because erosion from the waves and tide does not affect the area, unlike the swash and the berm, as well as sand is more tightly packed.

Dune vegetation on dunes

The vegetation found at Long Reef

Types of coastal environments

  1. Dunes

When sediments are collected and trapped by vegetation, duneland are established on the coast. Lakes and wetlands can be formed between the dunes when the level of water being found on the ground is high. The area between the dunes can be habitable for animals when there is water.

  1. Wetlands

There are different types of wetlands, depending on the acidity, salinity and wetness. Wetlands protect the shores from waves and improve water quality. There are particular animals that reside in wetlands, as well as industries forming because fish and other marine life are beneficial to commercial purposes.

  1. Estuaries

Estuaries form when sea and river meet together. It provides productive environments and are important habitats and breeding area for birds, as well as marine animals. Mangroves can be seen growing in the area.


Coastal Dunes



The stakeholders that have interest in maintaining the coastal environments are traditional owners (Indigenous groups), private beachside home owners, council, beach users and local businesses.

Long Reef area is significant for Gai-mariagal people (the traditional custodians of the area). Many Indigenous tribes across Sydney visit Long Reef to fish and trade. When Europeans settle around this area, Indigenous people were rejected from the land and the population had decreased due to the transfer of diseases. Since then, continued development has reduced the Indigenous people’s archaeological sites to shell middens and rock-shelters. European settlements destroyed the traditional culture. To continue the Indigenous culture, the traditional owners could preserve the coastal environment (particularly Long Reef Beach) to keep their heritage and spirit long lasting.

Private Beachside Home Owners are residents who reside in properties on the coastline. They main priority is to keep their homes safe from natural disasters on the coast and protect themselves from any danger. They have the main responsibilities to keep their private property from coastal erosion occurring to homes.

Councils manage their areas properly and act as a representative to improve the community. Their roles include organizing waste collection, recreational centres and designing town. They require management for facilities, small businesses and recreational areas at the coast to ensure tourists and local residents enjoy the environment and discover new features.

Beach Users are people that visit the beach to do activities for entertainment. Their preference is to manage the beach well that enables the continual availability for use efficiently. The beach needs to be managed well in order to let people enjoy their time.

Local Businesses refer the businesses that are running around the coastal environment. They need to rely on customers to enable high profit in the market. Their desire is the proper management for all coastal areas in order to allow more customers to not only visit the beach, but to also visit and buy products at the local businesses.

Management Strategies

  1. The new legislation – Coastal Management Act 2016

According to the Coastal Management Act 2016, it states that it focuses on protecting sensitive coastal environments, habitats for marine animals and manages risks, preserving Indigenous cultural heritage and build heritages around coastal area and improve public access to beautiful coastal areas. The strategy holds good intentions to improve the environment, especially achieved in the coastal management of Bondi Beach to Bronte Beach 2.5 kilometres coastline. The plan involves establishing conservation zones for protection of marine animals and habitats around rocky area. However, its effectiveness comes to questions as there are increased number of tourism, land development and more natural disasters, which affects the population. The legislation does not focus on residents living on coastline, which ignores humans. It is a benefit towards Indigenous tribes as their heritage can continue for generations. It is effective in some sense.

  1. Reducing Coastal Erosion

Reducing Coastal Erosion is a strategy that focuses on Collaroy and Narabeen beaches management in the aftermath of the 2016 storm damage. As mentioned on the fieldwork booklet, there are many complaints in regards to the establishment of the sea well. Many houses, including the White House, built in 1905, have been damaged by storm waves and erosion, consequently, the 2014 Coastal Zone Management Plan highlights operation of managements such as sea wall, revetment wall and sand nourishment. Although it has a strong aim to reduce coastal erosion, a 2016 Sydney Morning Herald article states “Resident Mark Greville was “under the impression” that coastal defences, such as boulders, extended along the front of his home, but were hidden by sand.” The residents assumed that the council would protect their homes, but residents need to contribute “25-50% of funds for the work.” Due to high costs of managing coastal erosion, residents are reluctant in supporting the strategy.

  1. Coastal Zone Management Plan

Strategy 6 states to “incorporate coastal risks in planning for replacement or upgrade of public assets.” The strategy includes limiting construction sites and sewage in hazardous areas of the coast and removal of existing built assets when maintenance services are no longer cost effective. It is a benefit towards private beachside home owners, local businesses, beach users and the council. For home owners, they are no longer have to be afraid of construction sites collapsing onto beach sites and the council takes strong action in the strategy as the council ensures the safety of residents and pays all



Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: