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Annotated Bibliography on Psychology Theorists

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Psychology
Wordcount: 2606 words Published: 23rd Sep 2019

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Annotated Bibliography

  1. Franklin Bobbit

Liu, X. (2017). Did there exist two stages of Franklin Bobbitt’s curriculum theory? Educational Studies in Japan: International Yearbook, 11, 71-81. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1147533.pdf

The purpose of this article is to discover if there were two stages to Franklin Bobbit’s curriculum theory. Bobbit believed that life itself is the curriculum. Students learn what they live through daily activities and experiences. Curriculum should be determined by students themselves instead of society imposing their beliefs and expectation on children. Learning should be continuous, subjective and vigorous.

Thesis and Scope: Liu examined his 1926 paper and his previous works, The Curriculum and How to Make a Curriculum, and The Curriculum of Modern Education to look for continuity of theory.

Methodology and Main Points: Curriculum and learning are experiential and should be a joint effort between family, teachers, and students. Curriculum should be individualized for each person as a supplement to the general curricula. Students’ interests as well as community needs should be considered instead of merely transferring subject matter knowledge.

Conclusion: There is no significant difference between Bobbit’s books and his 1926 paper. Bobbit believed the curriculum exists within the child already and will present itself differently according to their individual natures, interests, opportunities, and social situations.

Evaluation: Errors may exist in the author’s interpretations or generalizations. Simplifying texts may lead to misunderstandings in an entire philosophy. More clarification is needed in the future.

  1. Boyd Bode

Watras, J. (2016). Boyd Henry Bode, John Dewey, and the problem of subject matters. American Educational History Journal, 43(1), 1–16. Retrieved from https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.proxy1.ncu.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=15&sid=97c0e78a-beea-4567-886a-d982cb46d4cc%40pdc-v-sessmgr02

 The purpose of this article is to compare Bode and Dewey’s curriculum theories. Dewey believed that children’s natural curiosity and imagination mimic the scientific method and should be followed. Bode believed that many teachers lack a personal knowledge of educational philosophy. In this regard, they do not show respect for students’ different personalities nor maximize the development of each student.

Thesis and Scope: Bode and Dewey had some differing behaviorist ideas. Bode mirrored Dewey in his philosophical approach to education.

Methodology and Main Points: Dewey criticized traditional education for teaching the core subjects strictly, logically and rationally. Bode thought education ought to do two things: to use science as a tool to  help find the best ways to prepare children to be adults and to help students reach their full potential by allowing them to live their own lives. Bode and Dewey agreed on the second idea.

Conclusion: Bode’s aim was for students to make the world a better place by teaching them to contribute to society. Dewey desired to have curriculum linked to students’ lives and experiences for them to know their full potential and be active learners.

Evaluation: The author may have misinterpreted information in books, essays, and timelines. This is only one perspective on the two authors.

  1. John Dewey

Ilica, A. (2016). On John Dewey’s philosophy of education and its impact on contemporary education. Journal Plus Education, 14(1), 7-13. Retrieved from https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.proxy1.ncu.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&sid=1b57843f-b834-4bf8-a26c-343bf4f13cc2%40sessionmgr101

The purpose of the article is to view John Dewey’s theories in a useful way as they apply to daily life and education today.

Thesis and Scope: According to Dewey, the curriculum is important because it presents the subject matters according to how society sees them and deems them important. The inexperienced child versus the experienced adult is a conflict in education. Both people think they know what is best in curriculum. Children have their own educational motivations and individual experiences they bring to school. It is the adults’ job to make sure some of the children’s’ own ideas make it into the curriculum.

Methodology and Main Points: Schools are one part of an cohesive society. According to Dewey, their main task is to ensure each child is positively integrated into society. To create a school atmosphere most similar to life after school, schools should be made into miniature communities where children can try on different roles safely.

Conclusion: Children need to participate in their own development for successful education. Schools should act like a democratic society and behave like a community. Curriculum should resemble real life and educate children to contribute to their community.

Evaluation: It is possible to misinterpret information or over-generalize readings in a review. The author’s views and bias on contemporary education shine through.

  1. Robert Hutchins

Ashmore, H. S. (1996).  Robert Maynard Hutchins: The Higher Learning in America. Society, 33(5), 69-75. DOI: 10.1007/BF02693118.

The purpose of this article is to understand Robert Maynard Hutchins’ influences, background, and philosophy of education. He wanted to include social sciences in college curriculum. Hutchins was looking to preserve democracy by seeking a community of scholars who were free to pursue intellectual initiatives in a stress-free environment.

Thesis and Scope: Hutchins believed he had many benefits in life which had nothing to do with him personally and everything to do with his background. Therefore, he sought to build a democratic society focused on intellectual advances. Mortimer Adler convinced him that the main points of a liberal arts education should involve mastery of Western civilization classic literature and Hutchins’ philosophy grew from there.

Methodology and Main Points: Hutchins and Dewey wanted a democratic society, but at different costs. Dewey had a progressive approach to education and believed Hutchins to be reactionary. Hutchins believed that a quality education for every citizen was essential.

Conclusion: In his late life, Hutchins found the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, with the hopes of maintaining a circle of scholars discussing the basic issues of our time and solutions for them. Hutchins hoped to find the best in man, educate them well, and create intellectual communities with higher purposes.

Evaluation: The author has read and reviewed the materials and could be presenting information with prejudice or oversimplifications. Errors may exist in the author’s interpretations.

  1. William Heard Kilpatrick

Sutinen, A. (2013). Two Project Methods: Preliminary observations on the similarities and differences between William Heard Kilpatrick’s project method and John Dewey’s problem-solving method. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45(10), 1040–1053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2011.00772.x

 The purpose of this article is to explain Kilpatrick’s project method how students learn when they work in groups on projects with different objects. Dewey’s problem-solving method works along the same idea of students learning by work or action in an environment with objects.

Thesis and Scope: Kilpatrick was an interpreter of Dewey’s educational philosophy. In Kilpatrick’s idea of the teaching process, the student is the main focal point. His project method is focused on the child first. In Dewey’s philosophy, the teacher has an important position in the student’s learning. His philosophy is based on the ideas of growth, experience and creativity.

Methodology and Main Points: In Kilpatrick’s project method, a project is any activity with an end purpose. The student will be motivated to complete the project because he or she has planned it herself. Dewey’s problem-solving method links students with important objects in their environment as integral to the learning process.

Conclusion: Kilpatrick’s project method and Dewey’s method of problem solving are different. Dewey thinks that a student’s learning is linked with objects and people in his or her environment. Kirpatrick thinks that the teacher has little impact on the student’s learning process.

Evaluation: This article is persuasive in nature and contains the author’s bias.

  1. Jean Piaget

Dougherty, J. and Dee, R. (2007). Differential Impact of Play Therapy on Developmental Levels of Children. International Journal of Play Therapy, 16(1), 2–19. DOI: 10.1037/1555-6824.16.1.2

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) on children in Piaget’s preoperational and concrete operations developmental stages.

Thesis and Scope: This exploratory study addressed two main questions of concern. 1. whether there was a decrease in parent–child relationship stress after receiving play therapy and              2. whether there was a difference in the impact of play therapy for children in the preoperational versus concrete operations development stages treatment groups.

Methodology and Main Points: Archived records of 24 participants ages 3 to 8 years of age who participated in CCPT between January 2002 and December 2005 at a university mental health clinic in the United States were used. Parent–child relationship stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index.

Conclusion: Results of this study revealed a decrease in parent-child relationship stress after play therapy was used. The impact of play therapy for children of different developmental stages was also noteworthy with a preoperational pre-assessment using the Child Domain Scale of 7/12 children scoring in the clinical range. After therapy, four out of the seven now scored in the normal range. In the concrete operational age range, 7/12 had scores in the clinical range and on the post-test, five out of the seven now scored in the normal range.

Evaluation: The study is limited in geography and the clinic where it accessed archived information. The study had a small sample size.

  1. B.F. Skinner

Staddon, J. (2006). Did Skinner miss the point about teaching? International Journal of Psychology, 41(6), 555–558. DOI: 10.1080/00207590500492708

The purpose of this article is to reveal the flaws in Skinner’s ideas to education. But what causes an animal or student to produce an action for the first time is question this article addresses. Skinner’s theory of teaching does little to account for this variation. Skinner’s behavior analysis maintains that variation does exist but focuses on reinforcement and selection as the main points to the reason for variation.

Thesis and Scope: Skinner believes his experiments show that positive reinforcement is the best motivator for change. In education, he believed in programmed instruction, elimination of errors, and rote memorization as the best teaching methods. Time-outs and punishment are also present in his instruction, but positive reinforcement is the major mechanism for behavioral change.

Methodology and Main Points: Variation mostly shows up in social situations. A dog will behave differently if he perceives his owner as a fellow creature or member of the family rather than simply as a source of food.This variation produces the operant behavior spontaneously and cannot be accounted for using Skinner’s main points of reinforcement or a stimulant. The environment is what caused the response and changed the behavior instead of the stimulant or positive reinforcement.

Conclusion: Skinner’s behavior analysis is still present and a factor in instruction, but it is not the sole component in effective teaching.

Evaluation: The article is persuasive against Skinner’s educational philosophy. The author’s bias and interpretation could have impacted his assessment.

  1. Ralph Tyler

Parks, D. J. (2011). Lest We Forget Our Past: A Leader in Curriculum Development-Ralph Winfred Tyler. Educational Forum, 75(1), 80-86. DOI: 10.1080/00131725.2010.528549

 The purpose of this article is to remember Ralph Tyler’s contributions to education and curriculum design. Knowing and understanding the educational past affects our future as educators so we do not make the same mistakes or reinvent old ideas.

Thesis and Scope: Tyler’s concepts of behavioral objectives, curricular organization, and evaluation are found in the standards still used today. He thought that education was too subject focused with facts that are preselected by teachers. He also believed that subjects should be taught together.  Defining behavior broadly as thoughts, actions, and feelings, Tyler believed it was the interaction of the student with the learning experience that produced valuable changes in behavior. Tyler ‘s way of thinking is present in the constructivist view of learning today.

Methodology and Main Points: Known as the “father of behavioral objectives,” he created principles for selecting learning experiences, principles for organizing the content for instruction, and evaluating outcomes to guide the development of the curriculum. Tyler thought that teaching and learning should be more about what the students did than how the teacher taught.

Conclusion: Ralph Tyler’s contributions to the development of curriculum and instruction must be remembered. His ideas continue to affect education and are present in Constructivism.

Evaluation: The author believes Ralph Tyler is a prominent figure in education. His personal feelings may have impacted his assessment of Tyler’s work.


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