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Country Profile of Germany: History, Geography and Culture

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Cultural Studies
Wordcount: 5417 words Published: 7th Aug 2018

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Germany is the one of beautiful, richest and popular nation who knows everyone and want to visit him because its beauty attracts everyone. Germany is the part of central Europe. Germany has common borders with Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland. The government system is a federal republic system. The country is full of river valleys and rising and falling hills, also the snow covered Alps and bushy mountains. It is the Seventh largest country in Europe with its topography ranging from low-lying coastal flats beside Baltic Sea. Germany culture that came together after 1971. In the 20th century after the second world wars the country was occupied by triumphant US, UK, France and Soviet union in 1945.

Germany is the centre of Europe and it has a long history and a disunited region of distinct tribes and states, there are many widely names of Germany in different languages. For example, in German the country is known as Deutschland, in Scandinavian languages as Tyskland, in French as Allemagne,in Polish as Niemcy,in Finnish as Saksa, and in Lithuanian as Vokietija.

Germany is a country located in the heart of Western Europe. The chief of state is the President and the head of government is the Chancellor. Germany has a mixed economic system in which the economy includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Germany is a member of the European Union (EU). Germany is one of the major industrial and economic powers in Europe. The capital of Germany is Berlin


Hundreds of years before Christ a group of people speaking similar languages emerged in northern Europe. They were the first Germanic peoples.

In its long history, Germany has rarely been united. For most of the two millennia that Central Europe has been inhabited by German-speaking peoples, such as the Eastern Franks, the area now called Germany was divided into hundreds of states, many quite small, including duchies, principalities, free cities, and ecclesiastical states. Not even the Romans united what is now known as Germany under one government; they managed to occupy only its southern and western portions.

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The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 left German-speaking Europe divided into hundreds of states. During the next two centuries, the two largest of these states Prussia and Austria jockeyed for dominance. The smaller states sought to retain their independence by allying themselves with one, then the other, depending on local conditions. From the mid 1790s until Prussia, Austria, and Russia defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in 1813 and drove him out of German territory, much of the area was occupied by French troops. Napoleon’s officials abolished numerous small states; as a result, in 1815, after the Congress of Vienna, German territory consisted of only about 40 states.

In the aftermath of World War II (1939-45) and following occupation by the victorious powers (the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, and France), Germany came to consist of two states. One, East Germany, never attained real legitimacy in the eyes of its citizens, fell farther and farther behind economically, and had to use force to prevent its population from fleeing to the West. The other, West Germany, was resoundingly successful. Within two decades of defeat, it had become one of the world’s richest nations, with a prosperity that extended to all segments of the population. The economy performed so successfully that eventually several million foreigners came to West Germany to work as well. West German and foreign workers alike were protected from need arising from sickness, accidents, and old age by an extensive, mostly non government welfare system

Today Germany is a wealthy country with a high standard of living. Germany is famous for making plastics, paints and pharmaceuticals as well as cars, electrical goods and computers. Germany is also famous for its exports of wine, beer and sausages. Meanwhile Germany joined the euro in 1999 and in 2005 Angela Merkel became the first woman Chancellor of Germany.

Germany escaped relatively lightly in the recession of 2009 and it soon recovered. Today the population of Germany is 81 million.

Geographical setting:


Germany is in Western and Central Europe, bordering Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the east, Austria and Switzerland in the south, France and Luxembourg in the south-west, and Belgium and the Netherlands in the north-west. It lies mostly between latitudes 47° and 55° N (the tip of Sylt is just north of 55°), and longitudes 5° and 16° E. Geographic size: 138,000 square miles. Major cities and population: Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Bremen, Hanover, Frankfurt, Nuremburg, Stuttgart and Dusseldorf. The capital of Germany is Berlin

Population: 81 million people

Total: 356,854 sq km

Land: 349,520 sq km

Water: 7,390 sq km


The weather is not predictable and stable in Germany as in southern Africa. It is generally has a moderate climate and have a good rains through the whole year. The weather varies from year to year and so rainy summers can be followed by spectacular sunshine in the next coming year.

In April the weather is most unpredictable in Germany. It is hot or sunny weather or sometime rainy, windy and cold. In this weather the country turns green and you can smell spring in the air and the days are so longer as like in June July in Pakistan. The people are enjoying on there bicycles.

In the Germany the year weather are changed from each other. In September the humidity levels are so high and there is always chance of an afternoon thunderstorm. In November the weather is sunny and worm. In December the weather is mild with daytime temperature averaging between 0 to 5 c.


Germany also has many rolling plains which make good farm land. The Rhine River, in the western part of Germany, is a main waterway for transporting goods from northern ports. At the southern end of Germany are the Alps, the highest mountain range in Europe. In central Germany are the Harz Mountains. Germany is divided into 16 states; each state has its own German dialect, customs, traditions and architecture.

Social institutions:

A. Family:

In Germany both parents mean dad and mom are working for their lives or do agreement for birth of child and then support that child. When they born baby keep some amount of money for their lves of their children. This is the only way to afford lifestyle that they want.the average of German family has 1 or 2 children. But in rural areas Germany have familes wth several generations under the same roof. But this is not common in urban areas or farther north, where houses are too samll to include grandparents and relatives outside the immediate family. Young people are free to meet and marry whom they choose, but marrage is notthe only opeion, 40% of couples between the age of 18 and 35 live together without marriage. In urban areas single parents are accepted. Children born ouside marriage in Germany have the same rights as children born to parents who are married. An engagement is seen Germany have the same rights as children born to parents who are married. An engagement is seen as an offical bond to marry, and both partners wear a gold ring on the fourth fnger of the left hand durng this time.

B. Education:

In Germany the school is compulsory from the age of 6 through 14. In this stage government gives free education to the children’s. The educations of school are different from other American schools. In Germany all children enter in the same level of program but when they reach to age 10 then there schools are divided into four types. After this a boy or a girl has option to they join which type of field they like or they interested so they joined that type of fields. And then some students joined university or some are technical field or trade.

After the United States and United Kingdom the international students are preferred the Germany because in Germany has most attractive country in the higher education. There are 104 universities and 51 colleges of art 203 universities of applied science and 29 colleges of public administration. German universities and colleges offer more than 13,500 degree programs to approximately two million students, 240,000 of whom are international students. All institutions of higher education are open to students of all nations and many degree programs are taught partly or entirely in English

C. Political System

President is the head of state of Germany, a large ceremonial position, it is elected for maximum two or for the five years terms. The voters in the election for President are known collectively as the Federal Convention, which consists of all members of the Bundestag and an equal number of members nominated by the state legislatures – a total of 1,244. The current President is Joachim Gauck.

The head of the government is the Chancellor (equivalent to the British Prime Minister). The current Chancellor is Angela Merkel of the CDU. Most significantly, the Chancellor cannot be dismissed by a vote of no confidence. 

D. Legal system:

The legal system of Germany has completely different from other countries legal systems. There are two types of courts in Germany. One is petty Court (Amtsgericht). Its functions are trial court in these limited or less serious cases, both the cases of criminal and the civil. Not important issues are discussing in this court.

The other court is Country Court (Landgericht) the important cases are tried in the first instance. The country court also operate some cases of pretty courts may be taken. When a person can not achieve its rights so they prefer to Courts of Appeals (oberlandesgericht). These courts designated name where it sites of the town or city. After this the Court of chamber Court (kammergericht) have been appeal after that last Court is Supreme Court (Reichsgericht) here is the final appeal. It is also known as Federal Supreme Court. Germany also operates specialized court systems for labor law, administrative law, tax law, and social security matters. During the Third Reich, there existed a so-called People’s Court (Volkgerichtshof) and other special courts for the speedy and brutal disposition of political offenses

E. Social organizations:

NGO’s are the main social organizations that provide social welfare work to the citizens. These are created by religious institutions and funded by government. Also churches are also another of source of social organizations.

Clubs and Organizations in Germany:

In Germany the languages is German not they speak English so when the foreigner are go in clubs or in any organization they feel little bit difficult. But many German also know English so they speak to them. In Germany there are different fellowships, in clubs they offer a chance of golf, sing, taste wine and make business contacts.

The Germans who lives there also interested in speaking and they want to learn English. And there is an opportunity to meet Germans and many Germans also like international contacts.

In Germany there is also the American German Business Club. It has not for profit its basically the reason is that as the form of act for social and business networking.

Group behavior:

Germany mostly relies on themselves rather than groups; they prefer to act as an individual and take less responsibility of groups. In business world, employees are self reliant and take initiative. Also in promotion and hiring decisions, what individual has done or can do; this is what matters rather what the group has done. So in Germany culture, Individual behavior is more emphasized rather than group behavior.

Social Classes:

The three main social classes are the:

  • The working class
  • The middle class,
  • The upper class,

The wealthiest 5 to 10 percent are usually regarded as upper class. The growing middle class is defined as individuals with non manual occupations. Manual workers form the nucleus of the working class; 20 to 40 percent self-identify with this category.

F. Business customs and practices

In business the Germans are not need of Personal relationship.

They will interest u when your company has been in business.

Germans display great deference to people in authority.

When Germans works in their offices they keep closed their office doors.

Germans do not an open door policy.

Germans communication are not informal they used formal way for communicate to each other.

N business relationship Germans are talk directly on point of business and always saying true for both parties.

They made a written agreement for keep record of decisions and discussion.

They direct eye contact when they speaking to each other.


The biggest and the largest religion in Germany is Christianity. In 2008 survey that the 51.5 million adherents which is (62.8%) relative to the whole population. And 30.0% of Germans are Catholics and 29.9% are protestants belonging to the Evangelcal church n Germany. And the remaining belongs to the small Christians denominations which is estimated 0.5% of the total population of the Germany. And accordingly to survey 1.6% out of whole population declare themselves Orthodox Christians.

The second largest population in Germany is Muslims who’s religious are Islam accordingly to survey estimated that 3.8 to 4.3 million. And it has forecast that in 2050 the country German has been Muslim country. And 4.6% followed by Buddhism with 250,000 and Hinduism has less some estimated 90000 adherents (0.1%) and Judaism with around 200000 adherents (0.3%).

The 4 million Muslims mostly are Sunnis and Alevities from turkey. Germany has Europe third largest Jewish population after France and United Kingdom. Approximately 50% of the Buddhists in Germany are Asian immigrants.

B. Aesthetics:

In Germany painting was dominated by the European tradition for many years. Germany artist focus on realist images like Images of labor class and immigrants and isolated outback images have been popularized by artist such as Russell and Sydney Nolan and aboriginal artists were become famous internationally. In Germany playwrights have been successfully presenting the society. Performance art is also supported by number of theatre and dance companie.pop music is more successful than any other music. Ballet is popular and it is founded in 1962.

German music includes works by some of the world’s most well known classical music composers, including Ludwig van Beethoven, Johann Sebastian Bach, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johannes Brahms, Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss. Germany is the largest music market in Europe, and third largest in the world.

Living conditions:

A. Diet and nutrition:

The German diet is typically structured according to the saying “breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, dine like a pauper.” The breakfast in Germany is different from other countries in Germany the breakfast is large and hearty. The Germans used in breakfast is bread, cheese, cold meats, eggs and jam. After this lunch is larger than a dinner. In lunch both meals typically features meat products. This meal structure, with consumption concentrated in the morning and lunchtime, is believed to be beneficial to metabolic function.

Typical Foods

Meat and potatoes are staple foods of the typical German diet, with meat often being eaten at every meal of the day. Sausage-type processed meats are particularly common and popular in Germany. Bread, pastries and cakes are often eaten, with butter and lard the most commonly used cooking fats. The national alcoholic beverage is beer, although Germany also has a domestic wine industry. Alcohol and tobacco consumption is relatively high in Germany compared to other European countries.


In Germany basically two types of houses or apartment one is furnished and other is unfurnished. The furnished is little bit more expensive than a unfurnished. The renting or buying housing in Germany depends greatly on planed length of your stay. I also tell u something that in Germany unfurnished houses are without furniture or no fixtures period, no appliances, no closets, built in cabinets in the kitchen, no lighting fixtures, sometimes not even a sink or a toilet, which means that when u buy it u must bring each and everything like Appliances, kitchen cabinets, closets, table and chairs, curtains and curtain rod, etc.

So I suggested that whenever u stay in Germany for more than one year u must buy furnished houses.

In Germany might become somewhat of a nightmare, especially if you don’t have a big minivan. You are also expected to remove everything from the rented house or apartment when you leave, which can mean serious renovation to the place, to remake it the way it was before you added the “built-incabinets”,etc. 

If you want two bedrooms with a living room and dining room, you will actually be looking for a vier Zimmer (four-room) home in Germany. Bathrooms, WCs (literally, water closets), kitchens and halls aren’t included in the number of rooms. Furnished apartments are rare, and will cost a great deal more than an unfurnished place.


Traditional Dress

In Germany the dresses are different from other such countries. In Germany the traditional dress is for the women are they wear Dirndl. A folk dress that comprised a full skirt, blouse, bodice and apron. And the women who is married his dresses have been also changed from unmarried women. The married women wear the apron. In Germany mostly the women wear dirndl as a fashion in its original form. The men dresses are different they wear leather trousers it is also known as lederhosen. Men now reserve lederhosen for formal or traditional events such as weddings or folk festivals.

Business dress in Germany depends on the particular working environment. In corporate sectors such as banking or the legal profession, both men and women dress in a formal and conservative manner. Men usually wear suits and ties and women wear formal skirt or trouser suits


Germany has no cricket team but it has football team and it has win 3 times win world cup, his first world cup win in 1954 the second one win in 1974 and the 3rd one win in 1990. It has great football team who knows every one in germany. There is about 27 million Germans are members of a sports club accordingly to survey an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. The most popular game in Germany is football. Among the most well-known footballers are Franz Beckenbauer, Gerd Muller, Jürgen Klansman, Lothar Matthau’s, and Oliver Kahn. Other popular spectator sports include handball, volleyball, basketball, ice hockey, and tennis.

The Bundesliga, the top league of German football, is the most popular sports league in Germany and attracts the second highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world. In Germany also leading motor sports. The constructor like BMW and Mercedes are the prominent manufacture in motor sport.


The healthcare system of Germany is comprised of both public and private hospitals and medical practitioners and a lot of insurance schemes are set up for their funding through income tax, and is available all the permanent citizens of Germany. In recent years the Germany Government had made some changes and the text structure so that the people are encouraged towards the private health insurance.

 In 2005, Germany spent 11% of its GDP on health care. Germany ranked 20th in the world in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births).

As of 2010, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 41%, followed by malignant tumors, at 26%. As of 2008, about 82,000 Germans had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 26,000 had died from the disease (cumulatively, since 1982). According to a 2005 survey, 27% of German adults are smokers.


The official language in Germany is German, with over 95% of the population speaking German as their first language. The German language is one of the 23 official languages in the European Union and also one of the 3 working languages. Standard German is a West Germanic language and is closely related to and classified alongside English, Low German, Dutch, and the Frisian languages.

German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects, traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax.

Executive summary:

Germany has been a democratic parliamentary federal republic since 1949. Germany was a consists of 16 federal states. The federal president is the head of state while federal chancellor led the government. Germany covers an area of 357,022 square kilometres. It is 876 kilometres from its northernmost tip to the southernmost point as the crow flies, and 640 kilometres from east to west.

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The capital Berlin is also Germany’s largest city, with a population of 3.4 million. Germany is a country rich in natural beauty. Today, life in Germany is subject to a great diversity of cultural influences. It can generally be described as modern and cosmopolitan. The people of Germany love nothing more than getting together and celebrating, in traditional style during carnival season, at wine festivals, at the Oktoberfest and other beer festivals, or during music festivals from classical to rock all helped along by great food and fine wines from the 13 vineyard regions

Germany has the largest population of any European country, around 82 million – a density of 230 people per square kilometer.

NGO’s are the main social organizations that provide social welfare work to the citizens. Germany mostly relies on themselves rather than groups; they prefer to act as an individual and take less responsibility of groups. Christianity religion is most prominent. German is the official language.









http://www.vanuatu.usp.ac.fj/courses/LA332_Jurisprudence/Articles/German_legalsyst.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany







http http://www.journey-to-germany.com/housing-in-




Economic Analysis


German GDP increased by 0.2% in the third quarter of 2012, following a 0.3% increase in the previous quarter. Household and government consumption, exports and fixed investments all increased on a quarterly basis. Damage to Germany’s GDP from a disruption in the euro zone would not be seen as much through trade as through private investment and consumption. We expect consumption to slow and investment to contract in the last quarter. Moody’s Analytics expects the economy to grow a modest 0.9% in 2012 and 1.2% in 2013

The German economy is the fourth largest economy in the world in GDP and Europe’s largest. Germany’s main exports are machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household. Germany is relatively poor in raw materials and only has lignite and potash salt available in economically significant quantities. Power plants that burn lignite provide most of the electricity in Germany. The German economy has three main sectors; the service sector contributes around 70% of the total GDP, industry 29.1%, and agriculture 0.9%. In 2010, the ten largest stocks by revenue were Volkswagen, Allianz, E.ON, Daimler, Siemens, Metro, Deutsche Telekom, Munich Re, BASF, and BMW.


The total population in Germany was last recorded at 81.7 million people in 2011 from 72.7 million in 1960, changing 12 percent during the last 50 years. Population in Germany is reported by the World Bank. Historically, from 1960 until 2011, Germany Population averaged 79.15 Million reaching an all time high of 82.54 Million in December of 2003 and a record low of 72.67 Million in December of 1960. The population of Germany represents 1.18 percent of the world´s total population which arguably means that one person in every 85 people on the planet is a resident of Germany

Some scientsts also forecast that in 2050 the country Germany has a muslim Country, because in their after charistin the muslims are the second largest population in Germany. And the muslim are married their and also each family more than 3 children. So its means that in future Germany has covered by all the muslims.

Distribution of population:

At June 2010, the total number of children under 15 years of age was 4.23 million. This was an increase of 208,100 (5.2%) from 2005, however the proportion of the total population in this age group declined from 19.7% to 18.9%.

At June 2010, there were 15.09 million people of working age (15 to 64 years), an increase

of 1.36 million or 9.9% since June 2005

Gross national product (GNP or GDP):

Gross National Product in Germany increased to 674.87 EUR Billion in the third quarter of 2012 from 672.84 EUR Billion in the second quarter of 2012. Gross National Product in Germany is reported by the Deutsche Bundesbank. Historically, from 1991 until 2012, Germany Gross National Product averaged 529.82 EUR Billion reaching an all time high of 674.87 EUR Billion in August of 2012 and a record low of 375.74 EUR Billion in February of 1991.

Distribution of wealth:

Minerals and resources:

Natural resources: coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land. A high demand from producers of wind turbines and lamps.

Transport systems:

Air transport, Road transport, Rail transport, Sea transport, Local transport and also the rental cars. The German government has designated seventeen major transport routes to be either completed or rebuilt . The first transport plan for newly united Germany was adopted in 1993 and will cost DM453 billion by the year 2012. More than half of the investment will be dedicated to rail and waterway travel, not road travel.

Communication system:

Mobile phones, internet, fiber optic network telecommunication network, e-commerce, telephone lines.

Working conditions:

The working system in Germany is different from other countries. In Germany work will be finished on 4 p.m. and gives 45 mints break for lunch and gives rest for 15 mints at morning time and 15 times at evening time. Germany focus on Efficiency and they are in less time more output got from employees.

salaries in Germany are some of the highest in the world. If you are a new graduate, you can expect a salary around 30,000 Euros per year. If you are a student taking a job or are just seeking unqualified employment, you can expect to be paid around 10 to 15 Euros per hour.

International trade statistics:


machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals, manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles

Total value of exports: US$1.337 trillion


machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals

Total value of imports: US$1.12 trillion

Trade restriction:

The Integrated Tariff of the Community, referred to as TARIC , is designed to show various rules applying to specific products being imported into the customs territory of the EU or, in some cases, when exported from it. To determine if a license is required for a particular product.

Inflation rates:

The inflation rate in Germany was recorded at 1.90 percent in November of 2012. Inflation Rate in Germany is reported by the Federal Statistics Office. Historically, from 1992 until 2012, Germany Inflation Rate averaged 1.9 Percent reaching an all time high of 6.4 Percent in May of 1992 and a record low of -0.4 Percent in July of 2009.

Developments in science and technology:

Germany has one of the greatest country in the development of science and in technology field. Germany also get noble prize in development of science and in technology.

The Albert Einstein and Max planck has a great scintists of the Germany and they are the foundation of modern physics. The numerous Mathematicians were born in Germany. Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, such as Johannes Gutenberg, credited with the invention of movable typeprinting in Europe.

Companies specializing in green technology have an estimated turnover of ‚¬200 billion. Key sectors of Germany’s green technology industry are power generation, sustainable mobility, material efficiency, energy efficiency, waste management and recycling, and sustainable water management.

Germany is one of the leading countries in developing and using green technologies.

Channels of distribution:

In Germany there is different channels of distributon from other countries. In Germany it is the combination of distribution and sales organization, so that the process of shipping materials.In Germnay there is a process that a sales man take a product from organization or from a company or from a plant and gives to distribution channels that we can use to deliver the material or product. Sapo uses three distribution channels: the retail trade, the wholesale trade, and direct sales except Sapo Ireland, which uses only the wholesale trade.


Germany warehouses have become more sophisticated, using digital record keeping systems and have also replaced humans with robots and rely more on computers and radio frequency identification systems.

Penetration of urban and rural markets:

As more people with disposable income lives in the urban areas in Germany, they contribute majority of consumption and goods’ manufacturing.

Similarly Australian’s rural market produces food and consumes mostly which is needed for such production.


Commercial Stations

App. 260 commercial radio stations (CRA) are there in Australia in which 32 operators are those that own Australia’s CR stations.


Germany’s television market is the largest in Europe, with some 34 million TV households. Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels.


Germany has almost 600 newspapers which include 12 national daily newspape


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